کتاب طراحی و تئوری آنتن

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کتاب طراحی و تئوری آنتن

ISBN: 978-0-470-57664-9

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کتاب طراحی و تئوری آنتن

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کتاب فنی مهندسی

Contents
Chapter 1  Introduction 1
1.1 The History of Antennas 1
1.1.1 Overview of the History of Communications 1
1.1.2 The Significant Contributions to the Understanding
of Electromagnetic Waves 3
1.1.3 Key Developments in Communication Technology 5
1.1.4 Long-Distance Wireless Communications 7
1.1.5 The Modern Era of Wireless 9
1.2 What Is an Antenna and When Is it Used? 10
1.2.1 What Is an Antenna? 10
1.2.2 When Is an Antenna Used? 12
1.3 How Antennas Radiate 13
1.4 The Four Antenna Types 17
References 22
Problems 22
Chapter 2  Antenna Fundamentals 23
2.1 Fundamentals of Electromagnetics 23
2.2 Solution of Maxwell’s Equations for Radiation Problems 27
2.3 The Ideal Dipole 32
2.4 Radiation Patterns 36
2.4.1 Radiation Pattern Basics 36
2.4.2 Radiation from Line Currents 37
2.4.3 Far-Field Conditions and Field Regions 40
2.4.4 Steps in the Evaluation of Radiation Fields 44
2.4.5 Radiation Pattern Definitions 46
2.4.6 Radiation Pattern Parameters 49
2.5 Directivity and Gain 50
2.6 Antenna Impedance 56
2.7 Radiation Efficiency 60
2.8 Antenna Polarization 61
References 66
Problems 66
Chapter 3  Simple Radiating Systems 70
3.1 Electrically Small Dipoles 70
3.2 Half-Wave Dipoles 73
3.3 Monopoles and Image Theory 75
3.3.1 Image Theory 76
3.3.2 Monopoles 78
3.4 Small Loop Antennas and Duality 81
3.4.1 Duality 81
3.4.2 The Small Loop Antenna 84
3.5 Two-Element Arrays 89
References 97
Problems 97
Chapter 4  System Applications for Antennas 100
4.1 Introduction 100
4.2 Receiving Properties of Antennas 100
4.3 Antenna Noise and Radiometry 103
4.4 Antennas in Communication Systems 107
4.4.1 Directivity, Gain, and Effective Aperture 107
4.4.2 Communication Links 109
4.4.3 Effective Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP) 110
4.4.4 Impedance Mismatch 112
4.4.5 Polarization Mismatch 113
4.5 Antennas In Wireless Communication Systems 116
4.5.1 Spatial Frequency Reuse and Cellular Systems 116
4.5.2 Propagation Effects on Communication Links 119
4.5.3 Gain Estimation 120
4.6 Antennas in Radar Systems 122
4.7 Antennas As Unintentional Radiators 123
References 125
Problems 125
Chapter 5  Line Sources 128
5.1 The Uniform Line Source 128
5.2 Tapered Line Sources 137
5.3 Fourier Transform Relations Between the Far-Field Pattern
and the Source Distribution 142
5.4 Fast Wave And Slow Wave Distributions 143
5.5 Superdirective Line Sources 145
References 148
Problems 148
Chapter 6  Wire Antennas 151
6.1 Dipole Antennas 151
6.1.1 Straight Wire Dipoles 152
6.1.2 The Vee Dipole 160
6.2 Folded Dipole Antennas 161
6.3 Yagi-Uda Antennas 166
6.4 Feeding Wire Antennas 175
6.4.1 Transmission Lines 175
6.4.2 Matching Networks 177
6.4.3 Baluns 181
6.5 Loaded Wire Antennas 186
6.5.1 Lumped Loaded Wire Antennas 186
6.5.2 Distributively Loaded Wire Antennas and Fractals 189
6.6 Ground Plane Backed Wire Antennas 190
6.6.1 The Flat Plate Reflector 190
6.6.2 Corner Reflector Antennas 192
6.6.3 Backfire Antennas 194
6.7 Wire Antennas Above an Imperfect Ground Plane 198
6.7.1 Pattern Effects of a Real Earth Ground Plane 198
6.7.2 Ground Plane Construction 202
6.8 Large Loop Antennas 205
References 211
Problems 212
Chapter 7  Broadband Antennas 218
7.1 Introduction 218
7.2 Traveling-Wave Wire Antennas 220
7.3 Helical Antennas 225
7.3.1 Normal Mode Helix Antennas 226
7.3.2 Axial Mode Helix Antennas 229
7.4 Biconical Antennas 233
7.4.1 The Infinite Biconical Antenna 233
7.4.2 Finite Biconical Antennas 235
7.4.3 Discone Antennas 236
7.5 Sleeve Antennas 239
7.5.1 Sleeve Monopoles 240
7.5.2 Sleeve Dipoles 241
7.6 Principles of Frequency-Independent Antennas 243
7.7 Spiral Antennas 245
7.7.1 Equiangular Spiral Antennas 246
7.7.2 Archimedean Spiral Antennas 247
7.7.3 Conical Equiangular Spiral Antennas 249
7.7.4 Related Configurations 250
7.8 Log-Periodic Antennas 251
7.9 Wideband EMC Antennas 261
7.10 Ultra-Wideband Antennas 264
References 266
Problems 268
Chapter 8  Array Antennas 271
8.1 Introduction 271
8.2 The Array Factor for Linear Arrays 272
8.3 Uniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays 278
8.3.1 The Array Factor Expression 278
8.3.2 Main Beam Scanning and Beamwidth 282
8.3.3 The Ordinary Endfire Array 283
8.3.4 The Hansen-Woodyard Endfire Array 285
8.4 The Complete Array Pattern and Pattern Multiplication 286
8.5 Directivity of Uniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays 293
8.6 Nonuniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays 298
8.7 Mutual Coupling in Arrays 303
8.7.1 Impedance Effects of Mutual Coupling 304
8.7.2 Array Pattern Evaluation Including Mutual Coupling 308
8.8 Multidimensional Arrays 311
8.9 Phased Arrays and Array Feeding Techniques 314
8.9.1 Scan Principles 315
8.9.2 Feed Networks and Array Technology 320
8.9.3 Operational Array Examples and the Future of Arrays 325
8.10 Elements for Arrays 327
8.11 Wideband Phased Arrays 332
References 336
Problems 338
Chapter 9  Aperture Antennas 344
9.1 Radiation from Apertures and Huygens’ Principle 344
9.2 Rectangular Apertures 353
9.2.1 Uniform Rectangular Apertures 353
9.2.2 Tapered Rectangular Apertures 357
9.3 Techniques for Evaluating Gain 360
9.3.1 Directivity 361
9.3.2 Gain and Efficiencies 363
9.3.3 Simple Directivity Formulas 365
9.4 Rectangular Horn Antennas 368
9.4.1 The
H-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna 369
9.4.2 The
E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna 375
9.4.3 The Pyramidal Horn Antenna 379
9.5 Circular Apertures 385
9.5.1 The Uniform Circular Aperture 385
9.5.2 Tapered Circular Apertures 388
9.6 Reflector Antennas 391
9.6.1 Parabolic Reflector Antenna Principles 391
9.6.2 The Axisymmetric Parabolic Reflector Antenna 398
9.6.3 Offset Parabolic Reflectors 402
9.6.4 Dual Reflector Antennas 403
9.6.5 Cross-Polarization and Scanning Properties of Reflector Antennas 407
9.6.6 Gain Calculations for Reflector Antennas 410
9.6.7 Other Reflector Antennas 415
9.7 Feed Antennas for Reflectors 416
9.7.1 Field Representations 416
9.7.2 Matching the Feed to the Reflector 417
9.7.3 A General Feed Model 419
9.7.4 Feed Antennas Used in Practice 421
9.8 Lens Antennas 424
9.8.1 Dielectric Lens Antennas 424
9.8.2 Constrained Lens Antennas 425
References 425
Problems 427
Chapter 10  Antenna Synthesis 433
10.1 The Antenna Synthesis Problem 433
10.1.1 Formulation of the Synthesis Problem 433
10.1.2 Synthesis Principles 435
10.2 Line Source Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods 437
10.2.1 The Fourier Transform Method 437
10.2.2 The Woodward–Lawson Sampling Method 438
10.3 Linear Array Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods 440
10.3.1 The Fourier Series Method 442
10.3.2 The Woodward–Lawson Sampling Method 443
10.3.3 Comparison of Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods 445
10.4 Low Side Lobe, Narrow Main Beam Synthesis Methods 446
10.4.1 The Dolph-Chebyshev Linear Array Method 447
10.4.2 The Taylor Line Source Method 453
10.5 The Iterative Sampling Method 459
References 461
Problems 461
Chapter 11  Low-Profile Antennas and Personal Communication Antennas 465
11.1 Introduction 465
11.2 Microstrip Antenna Elements 466
11.2.1 Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas 468
11.2.2 Other Microstrip Patch Antennas and Their Applications 475
11.2.3 Broadband Microstrip Patch Antennas 477
11.3 Microstrip Arrays 478
11.4 Microstrip Leaky Wave Antennas 481
11.4.1 Characteristics of Leaky Wave Antennas 481
11.4.2 Microstrip Modes 483
11.4.3 Propagation Regimes 485
11.5 Fundamental Limits on Antenna Size 488
11.5.1 The Fundamental Limit on Antenna Size 490
11.5.2 Practical Aspects of Antenna Size Limits 492
11.5.3 Antenna Loading and Impedance Matching 496
11.6 Antennas for Compact Devices 498
11.6.1 Normal Mode Helix Type Antennas 499
11.6.2 Quadrifilar Antennas 501
11.6.3 Planar Inverted-F Type Antennas 502
11.6.4 Other Compact Antennas, Including Multiband/Broadband
Handset Antennas 506
11.6.5 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Antennas 508
11.7 Dielectric Resonator Antennas 512
11.8 Near Fields of Electrically Large Antennas 519
11.8.1 Near Field of a Uniform Rectangular Aperture 519
11.8.2 Calculating Near Fields 520
11.9 Human Body Effects on Antenna Performance 523
11.10 Radiation Hazards 526
References 531
Problems 533
Chapter 12  Terminal and Base Station Antennas for Wireless Applications 536
12.1 Satellite Terminal Antennas 537
12.2 Base Station Antennas 538
12.3 Mobile Terminal Antennas 545
12.4 Smart Antennas 549
12.5 Adaptive and Spatial Filtering Antennas 553
12.5.1 Switched Beam Antenna Systems 553
12.5.2 Adaptive Antennas in General 554
12.5.3 Van Atta Retrodirective Array 554
12.5.4 Adaptive Receiving Arrays 555
References 557
Problems 557
Chapter 13  Antenna Measurements 559
13.1 Reciprocity and Antenna Measurements 559
13.2 Pattern Measurement and Antenna Ranges 564
13.3 Gain Measurement 571
13.3.1 Gain Measurement of Linearly Polarized Antennas 572
13.3.2 Gain Measurement of Circularly Polarized Antennas 573
13.3.3 Radiation Efficiency Measurement 575
13.3.4 Gain Measurement of Large Antennas 575
13.3.5 Summary of Gain Determination Methods 576
13.4 Polarization Measurement 576
13.4.1 The Polarization Pattern Method 577
13.4.2 The Spinning Linear Method 578
13.4.3 The Dual-Linear Pattern Method 578
13.5 Field Intensity Measurement 580
13.6 Mobile Radio Antenna Measurements 582
13.7 Rules for Experimental Investigations 583
References 584
Problems 584
Chapter 14  CEM for Antennas: The Method of Moments 587
14.1 General Introduction to CEM 587
14.2 Introduction to the Method of Moments 590
14.3 Pocklington’s Integral Equation 591
14.4 Integral Equations and Kirchhoff’s Network Equations 594
14.5 Source Modeling 596
14.6 Weighted Residuals and the Method of Moments 601
14.7 Two Alternative Approaches to the Method of Moments 606
14.7.1 Reaction 606
14.7.2 Linear Algebra Formulation of MoM 607
14.8 Formulation and Computational Considerations 610
14.8.1 Other Expansion and Weighting Functions 610
14.8.2 Other Electric Field Integral Equations for Wires 612
14.8.3 Computer Time Considerations 614
14.8.4 Toeplitz Matrices 616
14.8.5 Block Toeplitz Matrices 616
14.8.6 Compressed Matrices 617
14.8.7 Validation 618
14.9 Calculation of Antenna and Scatterer Characteristics 618
14.10 The Wire Antenna or Scatterer as an
N-Port Network 621
14.10.1 Series Connections 621
14.10.2 Parallel Connections 622
14.11 Antenna Arrays 625
14.11.1 The Linear Array 625
14.11.2 The Circular Array 626
14.11.3 Two-Dimensional Planar Array of Dipoles 629
14.11.4 Summary 630
14.12 Radar Cross Section of Antennas 631
14.13 Modeling of Solid Surfaces 636
14.13.1 Wire-Grid Model 637
14.13.2 Continuous Surface Model 641
14.14 Summary 645
References 646
Problems 647
Chapter 15  CEM for Antennas: Finite Difference Time Domain Method 652
15.1 Maxwell’s Equations for the FDTD Method 654
15.1.1 Three-Dimensional Formulation 654
15.1.2 Two-Dimensional Formulation 655
15.1.3 One-Dimensional Formulation 656
15.2 Finite Differences and the Yee Algorithm 657
15.3 Cell Size, Numerical Stability, and Dispersion 664
15.4 Computer Algorithm and FDTD Implementation 667
15.5 Absorbing Boundary Conditions 670
15.6 Source Conditions 674
15.6.1 Source Functionality 674
15.6.2 The Hard Source 675
15.6.3 The Soft Source 676
15.6.4 Total-Field/Scattered-Field Formulation 676
15.6.5 Pure Scattered-Field Formulation 680
15.7 Near Fields and Far Fields 681
15.8 A Two-Dimensional Example: An
E–Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna 682
15.9 Antenna Analysis and Applications 689
15.9.1 Impedance, Efficiency, and Gain 689
15.9.2 The Monopole over a PEC Ground Plane 690
15.9.3 Microstrip Leaky Wave Antennas 695
15.10 Summary 697
References 697
Problems 698
Chapter 16  CEM for Antennas: High-Frequency Methods 700
16.1 Geometrical Optics 701
16.2 Wedge Diffraction Theory 707
16.3 The Ray-Fixed Coordinate System 716
16.4 A Uniform Theory of Wedge Diffraction 718
16.5
E-Plane Analysis of Horn Antennas 722
16.6 Cylindrical Parabolic Reflector Antennas 725
16.7 Radiation by a Slot on a Finite Ground Plane 727
16.8 Radiation by a Monopole on a Finite Ground Plane 730
16.9 Equivalent Current Concepts 732
16.10 A Multiple Diffraction Formulation 735
16.11 Diffraction by Curved Surfaces 737
16.12 Application of UTD to Wireless Mobile Propagation 742
16.13 Extension of Moment Method Using the UTD 745
16.14 Physical Optics 750
16.15 Frequency Dependence of First-Order Scattering Sources 757
16.16 Method of Stationary Phase 760
16.17 Physical Theory of Diffraction 763
16.18 Cylindrical Parabolic Reflector Antennas—PTD 769
16.19 Summary 771
References 771
Problems 773
Appendix A  Frequency Bands 781
A.1 Radio Frequency Bands 781
A.2 Television Channel Frequencies (in North America) 781
A.3 Cellular Telephone Bands 782
A.4 Radar Bands 782
Appendix B  Material Data and Constants 783
B.1 Conductivities of Good Conductors 783
B.2 Wire Data 783
B.3 Dielectric Constant: Permittivity of Free Space 784
B.4 Permeability of Free Space 784
B.5 Velocity of Light of Free Space 784
B.6 Intrinsic Impedance of Free Space 784
B.7 Properties of Some Common Dielectrics 784
Appendix C  Coordinate Systems and Vectors 785
C.1 The Coordinate Systems and Unit Vectors 785
C.2 Vector Identities 786
C.3 Vector Differential Operators 787
Appendix D  Trigonometric Relations 789
Appendix
E  Hyperbolic Relations 791
Appendix
F  Mathematical Relations 792
F.1 Dirac Delta Function 792
F.2 Binomial Theorem 792
F.3 Bessel Functions 792
F.4 Some Useful Integrals 793
Appendix G  Computing Tools for Antennas 794
G.1 Wire Antenna Simulation Packages 794
G.2 Parabolic Reflector Antenna Simulation Packages 795
G.3 Web Sites with Antenna Calculation and Modeling Tools 795
Appendix H  Book List 796
H.1 Introduction 796
H.2 Antenna Definitions 796
H.3 Fundamental Books on Antennas 796
H.4 Books on Antennas with Propagation 798
H.5 Books On Antennas With Other Topics 798
H.6 Handbooks and General Reference Books on Antennas 798
H.7 Books on Antenna Measurements 799
H.8 Books on Specific Antenna Topics 800
H.9 Books on Antennas For Specific Applications 804
H.10 Books on Computational Methods for Antennas 806
H.11 Books on Topics Closely Related to Antennas 808

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